The Darwin Initiative Blog

Insights and personal musings from the world of biodiversity conservation and development. For more info on the Darwin Initiative see https://www.gov.uk/government/groups/the-darwin-initiative


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Fantastic Flora: The rarest coffee in the world

Welcome to the third and final post of the Darwin Initiative “Fantastic Flora” blog series. This post features a Darwin scoping project that recently rediscovered a species of coffee that was seen last in 1954. Unfortunately, the forest where this unique species was found is under threat from mining and deforestation, but through conservation this species may be able to secure the livelihoods of the local communities and Sierra Leonean farmers.

If you would like to read the entire series, follow the links for the first and second blog posts.

Searching for the Sierra Leone Highland Coffee

Whilst leading a project to rehabilitate Robusta coffee production in Sierra Leone with the Natural Resources Institute , we heard about another coffee that is native to Sierra Leone. Known botanically as Coffea stenophylla and colloquially as the ‘highland coffee’, this species was first found in Sierra Leone in 1834, and has probably been cultivated since the 1850s. Reports from the 1920s indicate that the native coffee was of “exquisite” flavour, as good as the best Arabica coffee, and highly sought after. During a trip to Sierra Leone we asked local farmers to help us find highland coffee, but the closest we managed to find were three plants in the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute coffee collection. Later genetic analysis showed that they were hybrids between C. stenophylla and C. liberica.

In 2018 the Natural Resources Institute were able search for this highland coffee through funding provided by the Darwin Initiative to carry out a scoping project. They visited the Western Peninsula National Park on the southern edge of Freetown which was threatened from encroachment, firewood collection and poaching for bush meat. Fortunately, the deeper that the team ventured into the reserve the health of the forest improved due to the lack of human disturbances. Past reports indicated that C. stenophylla was common in such areas, but despite the reassurance from local forest guards no coffee was found.

First native coffee plant

The first native Sierra Leone highland coffee plant (C. stenophylla), Credit – University of Greenwich

The search continued to the Kasewe Hills Forest Reserve, the area where C. stenophylla was last found in 1954. On exploring Kasewe it became apparent that much of the reserve has been deforested, and the only chance of finding the wild coffee would be on the forest-rich hilltops. After much searching of different coffee relatives (plants of the Rubiaceae family), they finally found what they thought was C. stenophylla. The plant was found in a forest patch only about 500m across and was the only one of its kind.

Although C. stenophylla had not previously been recorded in Kenema District, the Kambui Forest Hills Reserve is one of the closest protected forests to the Kasewe Hills. With the help of the District Forest Guards the team explored logging trails in the lowland forest, but had to create a new trail up-hill through the forest and towards the ridge top. The first coffee plant was found 390m above sea level and within 100m of this we found another 15–20 plants including three mature trees about 6–8m tall.

Gold mining in the forest

Gold mining occurring in the forests where C. Stenophylla was rediscovered, Credit – University of Greenwich

In both Kambui and Kasewe the plants had no flowers or fruits, which made it difficult to be completely sure that we had indeed found C. stenophylla. Despite this, leaf samples were used for a subsequent genetic (DNA) analysis, which confirmed that the plants from these locations were indeed the missing highland coffee of Sierra Leone. The Kambui Hills are also under threat from encroachment from the town of Kenema, artisanal gold mining and deforestation for subsistence agriculture, but there is still a significant block of primary forest at its core. Bringing this species into cultivation again and developing it as a unique coffee crop could provide a unique and valuable product, which would benefit local communities and future generations of Sierra Leonean farmers.

For more information on project DARSC196 led by the University of Greenwich working in Sierra Leone please click here. The full article from this project and others can be found in the latest edition of the Darwin newsletter here.

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Fantastic Flora: Flora and fisheries

In the first blog post of the series we heard from a project working with a small community living on the island of Anjouan in Comoros and how through the combination of local and scientific knowledge they aim to preserve native tree species and protect local livelihoods. This post features a project that has found an unlikely relationship between the conservation of fish and foliage. The project led by RIPPLE Africa has found that through fisheries management and the protection of Chambo breeding grounds local plants have been able to thrive.

‘Fish for tomorrow’ protects flora biodiversity today

RIPPLE Africa’s Fish for Tomorrow project has been supported through Darwin Initiative funding since July 2018. Fish for Tomorrow is a community led fish conservation project in Lake Malawi, the 9th largest lake in the world which is home to over 850 different fish species many of which are endemic to the lake. This funding has enabled us to extend the project to cover more than 300km of the shoreline. One of the key species we are protecting is Oreochromis lidole, known locally as the Chambo, which was once the most commonly caught and prized species in the lake but now is classified by the IUCN as Critically Endangered.

Students learn about conservation of the fish and the plant life

Students learn about the conservation of fish and plant life, Credit – RIPPLE Africa

The project empowers local communities to work in partnership with District Fisheries staff to confiscate illegal fishing gear, restrict numbers of fishers through a local permit system and to protect key fish breeding and nursery areas. One problem faced by fishing communities is that these nursery areas are in lagoons and river mouths close to populated areas and have been extensively targeted by local people using mosquito bed nets to catch huge numbers of juvenile Chambo. In order to make this process easier, local people have cut back all the surrounding vegetation to provide better access to the lagoon. The cleared land around the lagoons is then used for farming, preventing reed and grass regrowth and damaging the lagoon further through run off. Once caught, a thousand of these juvenile Chambo will often be used to make a meal for one family, whereas if these fish were given the chance to grow and return to deeper waters to breed each one will go on to produce over 300 young. Allowing this to happen is key to increasing stocks of this fish species, which would simultaneously improve biodiversity in the lake as well as increase livelihoods and nutrition in one of the world’s poorest countries.

We have already witnessed the fishing communities in our project area making huge efforts to protect these breeding areas with consequent benefits not only for fish, but also for flora. Our community fish conservation volunteers have now stopped the use of mosquito nets in most areas, and are also taking positive steps to encourage the growth of reeds and other plants around the lagoons providing protection to the young Chambo from predators.

Conservation committee members inspecting Dema Chambo breeding area

Conservation committee members inspecting the Chambo breeding area, Credit – RIPPLE Africa

Kaweya Fish Conservation Committee have asked farmers to stop the cultivation of maize within 100 metres of the edge of their local lagoon to encourage the growth of protective plant species and have also stopped all burning of vegetation near to the lagoon, a commonly used agricultural land clearance technique.

It is still early days for the regrowth of species of reeds and grasses in the area where work has just begun but where the project has been operating for several years, reeds and grasses have returned and are growing thickly along the edges and in shallow areas of the lagoon, enabling the baby fish to thrive and find shelter from high temperatures and predators. Species such as Phragmites mauritianus and Phragmitis australis (reeds), Typha domingensis (bulrush) and Cyperus papyrus are now increasingly being seen again in these nursery areas and the vegetation and larger numbers of fish is also attracting more bird life back to the areas. A win-win situation for all involved!

For more information on project 25-009 led by RIPPLE Africa in Malawi please click here. The full article from this project and others can be found in the latest edition of the Darwin Initiative Newsletter here.


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Fantastic Flora: Native trees offer a new hope

Our latest Darwin blog series aims to bring awareness to the multitude of uses and resources that plants provide. Plants play an important part in everyone’s lives by providing oxygen, medicines and nutrients. This series will feature projects working to conserve plant biodiversity and aims to raise awareness of the importance of plants by combatting plant blindness.

This first blog shares the story of a small community on the island of Anjouan, Comoros, and how they are securing their future and livelihoods through the domestication of native tree species.

Trees in the mist: domesticating local forest trees to restore the Comoros archipelago

Forming a part of the Madagascar and Indian Ocean biodiversity hotspot is the island of Anjouan. In recent decades Anjouan has lost 80% of its forest cover, resulting in severe soil erosion, habitat degradation and loss of water resources, making life even more difficult for local farming communities. This Bangor University-led project is using a transdisciplinary approach to restore landscapes and enhance livelihood resilience around the Moya forest in the south of Anjouan.

“Our trees like Mpori [Khaya comorensis] and Mkindri kindri [Weinmania comorensis], with their large and dense crowns, are the ones that help trap the clouds in the mountains and bring the rain”, explains Nabouhane Abdallah, a farmer in his early 70s and President of the water committee in Adda, a village in the uplands of the Moya forest. The occasion was a series of participatory workshops that brought together groups of women and men from the Anteniju catchment. During the workshop maps of land cover changes were created and discussions focused on the linkages between the loss of forest trees and land degradation, drawing on the attendees’ sophisticated knowledge of their local environment. They spoke of what they once knew as permanent rivers, which have now been reduced to ephemeral streams. They spoke of their problems with water scarcity.

But they are neither hopeless nor despairing, as their knowledge of the local trees may be able to provide a solution. They explained that certain species of native trees are known for their ability to retain water around their roots like the Mvuvu (Ficus or fig) trees and Mkora dzia (Rheedia anjouanesis). For Misbahou Mohamed, Technical Director of the Comorian NGO Dahari and implementing project partner, protecting native trees and promoting sustainable land-use planning around spring and headwaters is the key to restoring degraded ecosystems. Some of the species are endemic to the island, and each provides important services or products. Mwaha (Nuxia pseudodentatata) and Ficus esperata, for example are roosting sites for the endangered Livingstone bats. Other tree species provide fodder, timber or medicine.

photo3

ICRAF domestication specialist demonstrating vegetative propagation for forest species, Credit – Dahari

 

The project has built local capacity for the domestication of native and endemic tree species with support from the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). Between 2018 and 2019, over 3,800 native wildlings and seedlings from five species including two endemic tree species were planted in the uplands. The project has plans to produce an agroforestry manual as well as tools for tree selection and management, which integrates both scientific and local knowledge.

“We still have large knowledge gaps about trees and their ecological functions at the landscape scale in the Comoros,” says Dr Emilie Smith Dumont, the project research coordinator from Bangor University. For this reason, she adds, “it is very important that scientists, technicians and farmers work closely together to co-design and monitor options that are most locally relevant.” Over the next two years, the project aims to promote the planting and protection of ecologically important native tree in five additional micro-catchments. Concurrent work will drive the protection of key areas of forest important for biodiversity conservation.

For more information on project 24-009 led by Bangor University in the Comoros archipelago please click here. The full article for this project and many others have been featured in the May 2019 Darwin Initiative newsletter that can be found here.


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Unexpected Achievements: Unconventional Partnerships

The final blog of the “Unexpected Achievements” series follows the progress made to the livelihoods of communities living around the Shukla Phanta National Park through an unexpected partnership. If you would like to read the entire “Unexpected Achievements” series, please click here for the first blog.

The Role of Unconventional Partners in Conservation

The Shukla Phanta National Park (ShNP) is in the far west of Nepal and boasts some of the country’s greatest biodiversity. The area is home to several globally threatened and iconic species, but the lowland of Terai is only one of the most densely populated areas of the country.

Nepal 22-009 Shukla Phanta Grasslands, Credit - ZSL

The grasslands located in Shukla Phanta National Park, Credit – ZSL

The communities living around ShNP rear large numbers of livestock, mainly cow and buffalo for milk production; the sale of milk products in nearby markets provides most of their income. Despite the plethora of natural resources, poverty is widespread around ShNP and therefore a large number of the local population is dependent on forests for fuelwood, fodder, timber and grazing grounds for their livestock.

A three year Darwin Initiative funded project was launched to address the problem of illegal livestock grazing in the ShNP. The project aimed to promote a more productive, but more expensive breed of livestock which would reduce the grazing pressure within the park.

In order to make this vision into a reality the communities needed the financial capital to purchase them, the veterinary services to keep them healthy, and the access to fodder to feed them. In order to meet these needs the project established a women-led savings cooperative, veterinary clinics as well as local nurseries, stall feeding and community managed grasslands.

Nepal 22-009 Inauguration of Darwin Initiative supported veterinary centre, Credit - ZSL

Inauguration of Darwin Initiative supported veterinary centre, Credit – ZSL

Usually organisations that don’t have a direct link to conservation are not recognised as stakeholders, however in an effort to establish veterinary clinics to provide better health care and reduce the risk of disease transmission led to the project team engaging with a range of unconventional stakeholders – most notably the District Livestock Services Office (DLSO).

In addition to the technical expertise that the DLSO brought, they also took direct ownership of the clinics and ensured their long-term financial sustainability. With the DLSO as a key partner, the project achieved a 222% increase in the number of households with access to veterinary clinics around ShNP, nearly twice the increase targeted at the project outset.

 

For more information on the project please click here, or read the full article in our November 2018 Newsletter also featuring “Unexpected Achievements” from many more of our Darwin Initiative projects.


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Youth in Conservation – Youth Collaboration

In this series of Darwin blogs, we have been celebrating International Youth Day and the inspiring work of Darwin projects with local youth groups, schools and colleges around the world. In the previous two entries in this series we looked at how Darwin projects seek to educate, from elephant board games in Burma (Myanmar) to a Marine Awareness Week in St Helena, and to engage, through the innovative use of video-based engagement in Guyana and the Cayman Islands.

In the final entry to this series, we look at how Darwin projects collaborate with local youth. First, we visit a project in Mali that is training young “eco-guardians” to protect the rapidly declining elephant population, before setting off to Timor-Leste to see how Blue Ventures are collaborating with and training local young people as certified scuba divers and seagrass monitors.

Local youth are fundamental to elephant conservation in Mali

The Mali Elephant Project (MEP) has been empowering local populations to work together to develop a model of conservation that benefits both people and elephants, that delivers very tangible local benefits, and which puts natural resources under the control of local communities. They gain, for example, from having pasture at the end of the dry season because they have protected it from bush fire. They can sell this and grazing access rights to others, and their livestock are healthier and worth more, and the proceeds are shared between the management committee of elders, the women and the eco-guardians, making it self-sustaining. Protecting the forest prevents its loss to agriculture, and safeguards the wood and many useful fruits, seeds, resins, forage and medicines that can be marketed by the women. It also secures vital ecosystem services linked to the healthy forests, such as water retention and erosion control.

Mali 23-022 Clearing the fire-breaks by hand, Credit - WILD Foundation

Eco-guardians clearing the firebreaks by hand, Credit – WILD Foundation

The 670 youth recruited by the project as eco-guardians are fundamental to all these achievements. Not only do they conduct patrols to ensure community rules of resource protection are respected, but they conduct resource protection activities such as building fire-breaks and fences, and providing manual labour for the women who establish revenue generation activities. They provide information on elephant locations and movements and, crucially, on poaching.

Across the world societies are witnessing problems of unemployed youth, environmental degradation and violence. This experience demonstrates the power of a systemic approach to tackling such challenges.

Young people in Timor-Leste engage in conservation for themselves, their communities and their future

Blue Ventures is working to engage young people in marine conservation on Ataúro – an island where communities depend on the sea for their livelihoods. Blue Ventures staff lead school classes on Timor-Leste’s marine ecosystems, reaching over 100 students who are keen to learn about how conserving their natural resources will affect life on the island.

Young people also make up the majority of the community-based monitoring programmes on the island; 85% of the seagrass and fisheries monitoring groups are under the age of 25. The seagrass group have mapped significant portions of Ataúro’s seagrass meadows, and are now shifting their focus towards long-term monitoring efforts. The all-female fisheries group are using smartphone technology to collect much-needed fisheries data and are helping change the role of women in Timorese society by getting involved in community decision-making and resource management.

East Timor 24-012 Children on Ataúro Island, Credit - Blue Ventures Martin Muir

Children on Ataúro Island  involved in Blue Ventures’ education programme, Credit – Martin Muir/Blue Ventures

Timorese youth are also flourishing within the Blue Ventures team. Jemima Gomes, aged 23, has recently completed her PADI Divemaster qualifications, making her the first Timorese woman to achieve this professional-level scuba diving certification. It’s largely thanks to her leadership and example that many more young people in her community are now beginning to participate in marine conservation and pursue their ambitions. Jemima believes that this participation is a great opportunity for her friends:

For more information on the Mali Elephant Project, project 23-022, please click here, and for more information on Blue Ventures’ work in Timor-Leste, on project 24-012, please click here or read the full articles in our August 2018 Newsletter.


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Youth in Conservation – Youth Engagement

In the first blog of this “Youth in Conservation” themed series, we looked at some examples of Darwin projects providing youth education through activities, board games, and local events. In this blog we take a look at a different form of youth engagement – the use of interactive video. Two Darwin projects, one in the Cayman Islands and another in Guyana, are using interactive video to engage local youth on conservation matters, raising awareness and improving overall conservation knowledge in the region. In the Cayman Islands, marine biologists and other experts are answering questions underwater through the innovative “Reefs Go Live”. In Guyana the local indigenous youth groups are using participatory video to capture and preserve traditional conservation practices.

The underwater world comes to classrooms via live video lessons

For children from the Cayman Islands, marine debris, overfishing, and the disruption of the balance of life on coral reefs is not a distant threat a world away. Rather, it has a real and lasting impact on them, their families, and their future.

The Central Caribbean Marine Institute (CCMI) hosts a variety of short and long-term residential courses for elementary, high school and university students throughout the year. However, not all children are able to visit the Little Cayman Research Centre. Financial, physical, and time constraints can make it an impossible task. In response to this, the CCMI team had to think creatively about how to make the underwater world accessible to children wherever they are. This gave rise to Reefs Go Live, CCMI’s innovative approach to engagement, broadcasting interactive lessons live from underwater on the reefs.

Cayman DPLUS061 RGL Broadcast Snapshot, Credit - CCMI

A snapshot of the Reefs Go Live broadcast, Credit – CCMI

Following nearly a year of planning, preparation, testing, development of lesson plans and teacher training, Reefs Go Live was officially launched as part of CCMI’s International Year of the Reef. School children in the Cayman Islands were the primary target of this initial Reefs Go Live rollout. Targeted lessons during the piloting stage were also delivered directly to classrooms in Peru and the United States. As the series developed, the Reefs Go Live videos were broadcast on social media, broadening the audience to include viewers around the globe. The pilot lessons achieved an estimated 16,000 views, and the total reach of the videos was nearly 70,000.

By engaging with scientists and having their questions answered by researchers on the coral reefs, students are learning about coral reefs in an active way, no matter where they are in the world. The underwater world is drawn closer and made more understandable; as a result, students are able to understand how threats to coral reefs affect us all.

Participatory video empowering Indigenous youth

This project in Guyana seeks to facilitate communication between communities and decision-makers by dialogue through participatory video. Participatory video is a great way of exploring and capturing the views and opinions of the local people on issues that are important to them. It allows for several voices and opinions to be heard and recommendations to be recorded and subsequently shared with relevant stakeholders and partners. This project focuses particularly on Indigenous communities located in and around Protected Areas and seeing how traditional knowledge could better inform the management of these areas.

The Makushi people of the North Rupununi are no strangers to supporting local conservation efforts. In fact, a total of 21 villages are affiliated with the management of the Iwokrama Rainforest. The rights of Indigenous communities to access resources in these rainforests and rivers continue to be respected.

Guyana 24-026 Young Indigenous woman are also having their voices heard, Credit - Claudia Nuzzo

Young Indigenous women are also having their voices heard through the participatory videos, Credit – Claudia Nuzzo

Through the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-going Darwin Initiative project, many young Indigenous men and women have had the opportunity to be trained in participatory video skills to improve engagement and pass on traditional knowledge. The project uses a methodology whereby video dialogue allows local Indigenous communities, through the youth, to voice their opinions, concerns and recommendations to decision-makers for improved management of the Iwokrama Rainforest. Young people in the community are provided with the knowledge and skills to develop storyboards, conduct interviews and, most importantly, use video equipment including smart tablets with tripods. They are also gaining valuable experience in taking responsibility among their peers, working together as a team and building good leadership qualities. Through their work on the project they have the opportunity to actively engage with elders and other community members, facilitating intergenerational interaction.

For more information on CCMI’s project DPLUS061 please click here and for more information on the Environment Protection Agency’s Guyana project 24-026 please click here, or read the full articles in our August 2018 Newsletter.


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Youth in Conservation – Youth Education

On 12th August 2018 we celebrated International Youth Day, a United Nations endorsed global celebration of young people and their contribution towards the Sustainable Development Goals, with the launch of our latest newsletter. Working with youth groups, providing training in schools, or partnering directly with universities and their students are often key aspects of Darwin projects, and engaging with local youth is a cornerstone of the Darwin Initiative.

In this series of blogs, we will be exploring projects which exemplify these values as we look at how Darwin projects educate, collaborate with, and engage young people in conservation around the world. In this, the first blog of the series, we look at education and knowledge sharing. We begin by visiting a school in Burma which has found creative ways to educate children about the importance of elephants, before attending “Marine Awareness Week” in St Helena to learn about plankton and plastics.

Integrating biodiversity and elephants into peace and development in Burma (Myanmar)

August 12th is a special day for Elephant Family. Not only is it International Youth Day, it is also, coincidently, World Elephant Day. Teaching youngsters about elephants and the role they play in their ecosystem, as well as how to live safely alongside them, is one of the strategies employed by a dynamic partnership of NGOs supported by the Darwin Initiative, ensuring a future for Asia’s elephants.

Elephant Family’s Darwin project is forging an alliance between two local partners – Burmese-led Grow Back for Posterity (GBP) and WCS-Myanmar – who work with rural communities in Burma (Myanmar). In the course of this project, the human-elephant conflict (HEC) education teams will reach over 12,000 families in key areas for elephants and biodiversity, giving them the knowledge and skills they need to conserve their natural resources and avoid conflict with elephants. Our common aim is for elephants to be seen as an ecological asset rather than an economic risk. This seems to be paying off. In recent months villagers who have engaged with GBP are those that have shopped elephant poachers to the authorities.

Burma 24-024 Children playing the WCS educational elephant board game, Credit WCS-Myanmar

Children playing the WCS educational elephant board game, Credit – WCS Myanmar

So far, the GBP teams have held Human Elephant Conflict awareness workshops in 61 schools and community centres with over 10,000 students. These are hugely interactive events involving educational films, Q&A sessions, memory games and other learning tools that grip these novelty-hungry audiences ranging in age from 8 to 80. Tightly packed in cross-legged groups, children eagerly participate while their parents and grandparents stand around watching, highly amused and equally engaged. One game requires players to pair elephant-related pictures on individual boards. The first to fill a board wins, and the contest is lively! The students are intensely focused, their parents actively encouraging. The WCS team has also developed a beautifully illustrated board game similar to Snakes and Ladders which explains the challenges faced by a young elephant as it grows up. This game has been piloted in six villages in the Tanintharyi region of southeast Burma (Myanmar) and is a hit! GBP looks forward to adding this to its suite of educational tools.

Elephant game

Board game of young elephants growing up in the forests of Burma, Credit – WCS Myanmar

Getting young people on St Helena talking about plankton and plastics

Darwin is helping young people on the island of St Helena to understand how their marine ecosystem works and how all the marine organisms link together in the food web. The aim is to help the island’s youth to make more informed management decisions about the marine environment.

When work started on this project the word ‘plankton’ was used a lot. Local people, who identify as ‘Saints’, weren’t sure what plankton was or why it’s so important. Through our Darwin project work we started spreading the information. The message was simple: plankton are the base of the food web, everything eats plankton, and everything needs plankton to survive.

But everywhere we found plankton we were also finding plastic. When we dragged nets through the water to scoop out plankton we also scooped out plastic. When we looked in our fish stomachs we found plankton but we also found plastic. When we went to our sea bird nesting sites little pieces of plastic were being used to mark their territories. We wanted to tell Saints about plankton, but we couldn’t do that without also talking about plastic.

Each year on St Helena the Marine Conservation Section of St Helena Government run ‘Marine Awareness Week’. A topic is chosen and a week of outreach activities are organised to educate and inspire school children about their marine ecosystem. This year the theme was ‘Our Invisible Ocean: from plankton to plastics’.

Every class from every school on the island was invited to attend. The younger children learned through games: circling what doesn’t belong on the beach, or trying to fish in the paddling pool and answering ‘What did you catch and should it be there?’ The older children had a more challenging day learning how long different plastic items stay in the ocean for. They then created St Helena’s food web with plankton as the base, working out what happens if you take away plankton and replace it with plastic.

St Helena DPLUS070 Schools on the island decorate their classrooms for Marine Awareness Week, Credit - St Helena Govt

Schools on the island decorate their classrooms for Marine Awareness Week, Credit – St Helena Government

Small actions by lots of individuals can add up to big changes. The children were given simple things to try to swap some of their single use plastic items with more ocean safe options. This included things like encouraging re-usable shopping bags and water bottles, taking metal cutlery on picnics instead of plastic and saying no to the straw when they buy a drink. St Helena relies heavily on imported food goods that bring in a lot of plastic packaging. Many locals feel that this is beyond their control but by adding their voice to those around the world saying ‘no’ to plastic, they can have a powerful effect.

For more information on Elephant Family’s project 24-024 click here and for more information on the Saint Helena Government’s project DPLUS070 please click here, or read the full articles in our August 2018 Newsletter.